October 10

Your Carbohydrate Needs For Weight Loss, Optimal Health And Peak Performance

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This article will help you decide whether you should really be avoiding carbohydrates for weight loss and health goals.

We'll establish the truth about carbs, and by the end of this guide you will be able to make informed decisions about how many carbohydrate you really need to be eating, and exctly which carbohydrate sources you should be choosing to improve your health, body composition and perform at your best.

To help you avoid the polarizing nutritional misinformation you'll see on the internet regarding this topic, this is one of a series of guides on the macronutrients - protein, carbohydrates and fat.

We’ve covered how much protein to eat and how much fat to eat in previos articles.  Now let’s dive into carbohydrates, the most controversial of them all!

Nutrition is a frustrating business. If your experience is anything like mine, you'll be told carbs are evil one day, and then you'll read about their health benefits the next. The nutrition industry is a minefield, so grab a coffee and an apple turnover, and read on for some solid unbiased recommendations (I have no products to sell) as we dive into the delicious world of carbohydrates.

This article will recommend how to approach carbohydrates for weight loss and health and provide you with a full understanding of this macronutrient. 

Essential Carbohydrates For Weight Loss Performance And Health?

The term ‘carbohydrate’ (or saccharide which means sugar) comes from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen-based molecules that are present in our foods e.g. fruits and grains but also vegetables and legumes.

Unlike essential amino acids and fatty acids, carbohydrates are not considered ‘essential’ because our body can change up the energy sources it depends on. This means we can obtain everything we need nutritionally from other food sources, so carbohydrates are not necessary to maintain life.

This has brought about much debate over the inclusion and requirement of carbohydrates in our daily diets and where they should fit into it. Some experts claim we do not need them at all in our diets, while others suggest they should never be excluded.

This once again, is a case that is largely dependent on the individual and their lifestyle, goals and activity levels. We cannot make any blanket statements in nutrition! As a result, we now have a number of different dietary protocols based on how they manipulate carbohydrates in the body.

Dietary carbohydrate exists in three major classes: the monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides.

Within these three groups, we can further break down the categories into specific carbohydrate types:

CARBOHYDRATE TYPE

MONOSACCHARIDES (ONE SUGAR MOLECULE)

DISACCHARIDES(TWO SUGAR MOLECULES)

OLIGOSACCHARIDES (TWO TO TEN SUGAR MOLECULES) 

POLYSACCHARIDES (TEN OR MORE SUGAR MOLECULES)

Glucose

Sucrose 

Raffinose  

Starch 

Fructose 

Lactose

Stachyose

Glycogen

Galactose

Maltose

Cell

Cellulose

Note: the carbohydrates are grouped into these categories due to the variations in their molecular structure i.e. 1-10+ molecules. This is why disaccharides are typically classified under oligosaccharides as they contain 2 molecules.

MONOSACCHARIDES

This is the simplest form of carbohydrate molecule, thus the term ‘mono’, meaning they only contain one sub-unit of sugar.

The three most important monosaccharides are glucose, fructose and galactose. These are known as ‘simple’ carbohydrates and are recognized by their sweet taste.

Glucose is the simplest form and final end product of complex carbohydrates and is the preferred fuel source for our brain, organs and working muscle. This is what is measured in blood at the doctor’s office.

Glucose is therefore easily used by the body and is has the three unique characteristics –

1. Used for immediate energy,
2. Stored within muscle or liver cells, as glycogen
3. Converted to triglycerides to be stored as body fat when energy intake is higher than we need

Fructose is another monosaccharide that has to be metabolized within the liver in order for it to be converted to glucose. This is found in many natural and artificial foods and is considered the sweetest of the carbohydrates, hence the popularity in food manufacturing. Over the years, fructose has undergone a lot of debate, and it has therefore been covered in a separate article.

OLIGOSACCHARIDES

When monosaccharides join together they form disaccharides (2 molecule bonds) and oligosaccharides (2-10 molecule bonds). These then become ‘complex’ carbohydrates and are commonly found in 3 main carbohydrates types: sucrose, lactose and maltose.

Sucrose is also known as table sugar and is therefore the most popular oligosaccharide. This carbohydrate occurs naturally in many of our foods (fruits, vegetables, beet sugar, cane sugar) and is essentially a combination of glucose and fructose.

Lactose is another common disaccharide, yet it only exists in animal milk from lactating animals, and is a combination of glucose and galactose. The body requires a special digesting enzyme called lactase to digest this type of carbohydrate.

The last important disaccharide is maltose, which is a combination of two glucose molecules. In nature this occurs during the sprouting of seeds, but it can also be artificially induced (known as malting) by the introduction of heat. This process is usually seen in the production of alcohol, as they use this carbohydrate to provide that sweet taste in products.

POLYSACCHARIDES

The last of the saccharide categories is polysaccharides, meaning a bonding of 10 or more molecules to form linear or complex chains.

A homopolysaccharide is one that is made of 10 or more monosaccharides of the same type e.g. all glucose. A heteropolysaccharide is one that is made of 10 or more monosaccharides from two or more different monosaccharide types e.g. glucose and fructose.

When they are ‘branched’, this simply means they are bonded. The image below summarizes this information:

The last important monosaccharide is galactose. Just like fructose this carbohydrate molecule must be metabolized in the liver and will then be used in the same manner as glucose. Unlike the other two monosaccharides, galactose is not typically found alone in foods, but joined with other molecules to form disaccharides.

Polydacharides

These types of saccharides are typically found in animal and plant sources, and the two main groups of polysaccharides are starch and fibre.

STARCHES

The starch molecule is the storage form of carbohydrates in plants e.g. grains, legumes, and potatoes. Within starch you have two forms: amylose and amylopectin.

Amylose is a linear chain containing hundreds of glucose units.

Amylopectin is a branched chain containing thousands of glucose units. Foods containing a high level of amylopectin tend to have a higher glycemic index, as they increase blood sugar levels the most due to their larger surface area (speeds up digestion – enters blood faster).

Starches that are not digested in the stomach (remain intact) are known as resistant starches, and may then be broken down in the gut to benefit gastrointestinal health. (1) 

Resistant Starches

Note – Humans and animals store glucose energy from starches in the form of the very large molecules, glycogen. This is typically stored in muscle and liver cells and provides quick energy due to its highly branched nature. This process is known as glycogenolysis.

DIETARY FIBRE

Fibre is considered a non-starch, structural polysaccharide that is indigestible in the human digestive tract. Examples include pectin, gum and cellulose.

These fibres are found in plants, and despite the benefits to our health, they can only be broken down by the large intestine.

How Carbohydrates And The Glycemic Index Affect You

The glycemic index or GI is a popular concept used to determine the effect of certain carbohydrates on blood sugar levels in the body. It therefore represents the metabolic response of the body to the carbohydrates we eat, and is classified into 3 groups:

1. Low GI foods = <55 GI value
2. Medium GI foods = 56 – 69 GI value
3. High GI foods = 70 or greater

Foods that have a low GI do not raise blood glucose levels as much, nor as fast as foods that have a high GI. The GI for a particular carbohydrate is primarily dependent on the rate at which the food (and carbohydrate) is digested, thus resulting in how quickly glucose appears in the blood stream.

The GI index ranking is based on a standard food such as white bread or pure glucose which is given the arbitrary GI of 100. To work out the GI of a particular carbohydrate, the carbohydrates 2-hour glucose response curve is compared with 50g of carbohydrates from the control food i.e. white bread or glucose.

There are a number of important factors that will affect the digestion rate of a carbohydrate, namely: the type of carbohydrate, the amount, fibre content and proportion of other macronutrients present.

The initial decision to create the GI was based on the studies showing that unstable (rising and falling) blood sugar responses to food are linked with poorer health outcomes e.g. insulin-resistance, prediabetes and diabetes. Recent research however, shows no correlation between the GI of a food and cardiovascular diseases but it is a great tool to highlight how various

carbohydrates will impact blood sugar levels and how the body may respond based on this. (2)

Below is a table listing common carbohydrates and their respective GI:

FOOD

GI VALUE

FOOD

GI VALUE

FOOD

GI VALUE

Low GI Foods <55

Low GI Foods 55-69

Low GI Foods >70

Apple 

44

Apricots 

57

Dates

103

Pear

38

Cantaloupe

65

Banana (over-ripe)

82

Banana (under-ripe)

51

Mashed Potatoes

70

Parsnips

97

Grapefruit

25

Whole-Wheat Pita Bread

57

Corn Chips

72

Barley

25

Whole-Wheat Bread

69

Pretzels

83

Navy Beans

38

Couscous

65

White Bread

70

Green Peas

48

Brown Rice

55

White Rice

72

Oat Bran (Quaker Oats)

50

Cheese Pizza

60

Spaghetti (durum flour)

78

Spaghetti (whole wheat)

37

Rye Bread

65

White rice (instant)

87

Mashed sweet potatoes

54

Hamburger Bun

61

French baguette

95

Baked beans

48

Black Bean soup

64

Bagel

72

Butter beans

44

Macaroni and cheese

64

Bread Stuffing

74

Banana bread

47

Coca-cola 

63

Cheerios

74

Bread (sourdough)

52

Cell
Cell

Cream of wheat

71

Soy milk

31

Cell
Cell

Raisin bran

73

Skim milk

32

Cell
Cell

Fruit roll-up

99

Whole milk

27

Cell
Cell

Gatorade

78

Yogurt (sweetened)

33

Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell

Yogurt (plain, artificial sweetener)

14

Cell
Cell
Cell
Cell

Carbohydrates And The Glycemic Load Vs The Glycemic Index

The main problem with using the standard GI is that it only accounts for the type of carbohydrate and not the amount. Therefore, the glycemic load or GL was introduced to represent the glycemic index adjusted for the amount of carbohydrates, thus representing the quality and quantity.

The ranking system works similar to the standard GI, as the higher the GL, the greater the expected increase in blood sugar levels. 

The Role Of Carbohydrates

Carbohydrates have several important functions in the body - 

  1. Primary, and most efficient source of energy for the body and brain
  2. Protein sparing and prevents ketosis
  3. Source of B-vitamins for cholesterol metabolism
  4. Type of carbohydrates chosen determine:
  • Fibre content of diet
  • Glycemic load of diet
  • Nutrient density & phytochemical content 


Carbohydrate Metabolism

The metabolism of carbohydrates is a highly complex topic when examining it on a cellular level.

To simplify this, the cellular use of carbohydrates depends on their absorption from the gastrointestinal tract into the bloodstream, the activity and trained status of the individual.

In order to achieve this, all carbohydrates must be in the form of monosaccharides, so the body must break down polysaccharides and disaccharides through hydrolysis before absorption can occur.

Carbohydrates can be metabolized by 2 different pathways: 

  1. Anaerobic pathway (glycolysis and glycogenolysis)
  2. Aerobic pathway (oxidative)


Do I Need To Eat Carbohydrates For Losing Weight And Improved Health And Peak Performance?

There’s no clear definition of exactly how many carbs should make up someone’s diet, as what might be right for one person may not be for the next. An individual’s optimal intake depends on age, gender, body composition, activity levels, personal preference, food culture and current metabolic health.

When looking at the different metabolic processes and their ability to supply energy for athletic performance, it is very clear that carbohydrates are an essential component of an athlete’s diet.

Therefore, people who are physically active and have more muscle mass, can tolerate and in fact, need a lot more carbohydrates than those who are sedentary. It’s important as nutrition to be aware of the amounts of carbohydrates in an active person’s diet, as it can have significant impact on the glycogen stores and therefore athletic performance.

Metabolic health is also a very important factor, as for those with metabolic syndrome, obesity or type II diabetes, the rules change significantly.

Those who fall into this category do not require nearly as much carbohydrates as healthier and more active individuals.

For those seeking fat loss and improved health (the majority improving their nutrition) a lower carbohydrate approach (meaning compared to the typical Western diet) appears to work well. (3) (4)

Studies show that lower-carbohydrate diets reduce appetite, which usually results in a lower energy (kCal) intake. (5) This phenomenon is in part, due to the appetite-suppressing effects of higher protein and fat intake (as they are used to replace the carbohydrates). And, because energy balance is key for fat loss, a lower-carbohydrate diet may help to increase fat loss too! (6) (7)

A lower carbohydrate diet can also improve health markers such as lowering blood sugar, blood pressure and triglycerides. (8) (9) (10).

REMEMBER: The low-carbohydrate diet is a roundabout way of reducing energy intake (kCal) by suppressing appetite, increasing the thermic effect of food (protein needs more energy to digest) and normalizing blood sugar (consistent energy). A lower-carbohydrate diet DOES NOT have magical effects that will help you lose weight when energy balance is not in check.

As mentioned, a lower-carbohydrate diet is a fantastic approach for some individuals, while for others, it is the last thing they want to do. It is important as a coach that each individual monitor how they react to this approach and to make changes if they are not enjoying it.

General Carbohydrate Recommendations Of Average Intake

Note – these recommendations are carbohydrate recommendations for weight loss or health goals, not for those who are endurance or strength training, and this is covered in a separate article.

High-Carb Diet – 200g+ Per Day (>5 g/kg/day)

Some people do very well on a higher-carbohydrate diet, and some of my clients can eat 300-400g per day while still losing body fat. Most are not so lucky, and those who can, usually fall into the same category – young, lean, active individuals with high energy outputs.

If you do not tick those boxes the chances are that you will require less carbohydrates especially if weight loss is a goal.

Moderate Carb Diet – 100-200G Per Day (>3 g/kg/day)

This is a very common daily carb range for the majority of active and healthy people looking to cut the body fat. This still allows for some starch in the diet, yet limits the amount quite significantly.

You still get all the benefits of having carbs in the diet (so we feel good and perform well), yet lower the intake and overall amount to therefore optimise fat burning (to look good). 

Lower Carb Diet – <100g Per Day (< 3g/kg/day)

This can be described as ketogenic diet (although it usually requires <50g/day)– one in which no starchy carbs (or very little) are consumed daily. This is when the body is forced to use fat for energy.

To do this, the person will go through a fat adaption phase, when the body releases ketones for muscle and brain fuel. This can be the most difficult part of such a diet as energy levels can significantly drop until this process is complete.

This energy slump is also common for those transitioning from, for example, a high carb diet containing high sugar and processed foods to a moderate carb diet plan.

Most people lose weight quickly on this type of plan, but it suits those who are inactive, diabetic or seeking that last bit of fat loss. A low carb diet also works better with females, as they carry much less bodyweight than men, meaning they require less energy as a result. 

The Magic 100g Carb Recommendation

Without knowing or assessing someone, I typically suggest starting at 100g of carbohydrates (not including fibre) daily. This is a moderate amount of carbs for the majority of people and allows for ample amounts of starch too. It is in between a low and a high carb diet, and a good starting point for most to adjust as they need, based on results - outcome based decision making.

Adjustments should be gradual and calculated, unless you have greatly over/under-estimated their needs. Reduce or increase by 20-30g at a time.

Summary Of Carb Needs And Next Steps

You should now understand the importance of carbohydrate for weight loss and health in the human diet, how it is metabolized, how to measure quality, assess daily intake for various populations, compare carbohydrate types and debunk some of the myths that surround it. 

How does this help you?

There is a lot of information in this article and the reality is that you probably don't need to know this in order to achieve your goals.

In my experience the nutrition and weight loss coaching clients I tend to help are ''seeking more information'', when what they really ''need'' is a clear process that helps them implement what they already know.

The likelihood is you are bright, and successful in many areas of your life, and you may already ''know'' what to do to lose weight and improve your health.

Rather than seeking more information, I highly recommend building an actionable plan that helps you to develop good daily practices - habits - that in turn lead you towards your goal, be it in the areas of health, weight loss or sporting goals.

If you would like to learn about how I can help you, please do get in touch.

References And Further Reading

1. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-3010.2005.00481.x/full
2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23538939
3. http://press.endocrine.org/doi/full/10.1210/jc.2002-021480
4. http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/1/1/13
5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17228046
6. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1467-789X.2008.00518.x/abstract
7. http://www.colorado.edu/intphys/Class/IPHY3700_Greene/pdfs/atkins/Volek_diet.pdf
8. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/86/2/276.full
9. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs11745-008-3274-2
10. http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/90/1/23.long


Tags

Carbohydrates, Nutrition, Weight Loss


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